The Galapagos Tortoise
The Galápagos Tortoise is the largest tortoise in the world.

The Galapagos Tortoise

Discover the Galapagos tortoise, one of the longest-lived reptiles on land. Learn about its unique adaptations and threats to its survival.

The Galapagos giant tortoise is undoubtedly one of the most fascinating and unique animals that can be found anywhere in the world. These fantastic creatures of the animal kingdom are exclusive to the Galapagos archipelago, and the fact that they are only found there contributes to the singularity of their characteristics. To give you an example, did you know that the Galápagos tortoises can live over 100 years – they have a life expectancy and many have lived up to 150 years! A unique accomplishment!

Continue reading for some interesting information on the Galápagos tortoise if you’re curious about these intriguing creatures and want to learn more about them.

Story Outline

History, Expansion, Habitat, Threats, Behavior & Reproduction

  1. History and Whalers
  2. Tortoises in Different Islands
  3. Galapagos Tortoise and its habitat
  4. Tortoises Adaptations
  5. Giant Tortoises Migration & its struggles
  6. Galapagos Tortoises Social Behavior
  7. Reproduction & Newly Hatched Tortoises Threats
  8. Galapagos Tortoise Lifespan
  9. Appearance, nutrition, and conduct
  10. Galapagos Tortoise Dangers and Predators

Conservancy Programs

  1. Galapagos National Park
  2. Galapagos Conservancy
  3. Fausto Llerena Research Station
  4. Breeding Giant Tortoise Eggs
  5. Lonesome George

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What are Galápagos tortoise’s?
  2. How many Galápagos tortoises remain?
  3. Why are Galapagos tortoises so big?
  4. Did the last Galápagos tortoise die?

History and Whalers

Pirate ship sailing on the Galapagos ocean. Stormy clouds

Pirate ship sailing on the Galapagos ocean

The Galapagos giant tortoise has been around for at least 15 million years, as evidenced by fossil records, proving that it has a long and illustrious history. These animals are believed to have originated between two and three million years ago from mainland South America and then traveled to the Galapagos archipelago at some point in time. In order for these slow dinosaurs to survive the hot, arid conditions of the islands, their back are shaped like domed shells, which helps them retain heat and water.

It wasn’t until the 1960s that whalers hunting them for fresh meat, where they reached the brink of extinction. Whalers who came to the islands in the past would hunt Galapagos tortoises and then keep them alive in captivity as a source of fresh food. Some of these tortoises weighed more than 500 pounds each. Because of the astonishing ability of Galapagos tortoises to go for extended periods of time without consuming any food or water, it was common practice for sailors to bring live tortoises on board their vessels.

They would use the tortoises as a supply of fresh meat while they were traveling. It wasn’t until conservation programs started helping to replenish their numbers. Between the years 1831 and 1836, naturalist Charles Darwin embarked on his landmark expedition aboard the HMS Beagle. The abundance of plant and animal species on the Galapagos Islands, such as the blue-footed boobies, marine iguanas, and Galapagos giant tortoise, astounded him during this visit.

It wasn’t until this expedition that Darwin and his team learned that the Galápagos Islands were home to three distinct species of Galápagos tortoises. This discovery would ultimately serve as the foundation for Darwin’s theory of evolution.

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The Galapagos Tortoise in Different Islands

A large Galapagos tortoise in splashing water, a reflection of its shell in the water surface.

A large Galapagos tortoise in splashing water, a reflection of its shell in the water surface.

Whalers who would come to the Galapagos Islands in the past would sometimes hunt gigantic tortoises there because of their enormous size and weight. Adult Galápagos tortoises would frequently be loaded into the ship hulls by sailors before they set sail, and after they reached their destination, the tortoises would be butchered for their fresh meat. When it came time to lighten their load, they would throw the live tortoises into the water.

Some of the tortoises would float to distant islands in the Galapagos and settle there. This method inadvertently brought Galápagos tortoises to new habitats, which resulted in the evolution of separate species. There are saddle-backed tortoises, domed tortoises, among others. The Galapagos Islands are home to a variety of ecosystems that are suitable for these tortoises.

It’s interesting to note that some of the enormous tortoises that were kidnapped from the Galapagos Islands by whalers are still kept as pets in zoos and aquariums all around the world. This is only one of many astonishing facts about the gigantic tortoises that live in the Galapagos Islands.

Santa Cruz Island

Santa Cruz Island holds the largest giant tortoise populations, these can be found roaming freely. Here, newly young tortoises emerge from the sandy beaches each year, with each possessing genetically distinct saddleback shells and bodies that weigh up to 550 pounds! It is estimated that there are around 5000-6000 saddleback tortoises living on the island, with at least two species relying on the prickly pear cactus for nutrition.

The same species of saddle backed tortoises can even be seen in different areas across the island. The humid islands region like the highlands of Santa Cruz are especially ideal for the tortoise’s environmental needs.

Espanola Island / Hood

Hood Island is home to the rarest species of Galápagos tortoises, the Galapagos giant tortoise from Hood is the most threatened species of Galápagos Tortoises. They are easily distinguished by their dome-shaped shells which are larger than those of other Galapagos species. The head and neck of these tortoises is also longer than that of other Galapagos species, allowing them to reach higher branches for food.

With only 250 individuals living in their natural habitat, the Galapagos giant tortoise from Hood is classified as critically endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  Scientists are currently working to protect this species from extinction through captive breeding programs and other conservation work. In addition, these Galápagos giant tortoises are protected by Galapagos National Park regulations which prohibit hunting, as well as restrict access to certain areas to protect the species.

Española Island is home to one of the last remaining Galapagos giant tortoise colonies in South America. These unique creatures are only found on Española, as well as a few other Galápagos islands. The Galápagos giant tortoises have adapted to arid islands and its climate, like the one found on Española Island, and can live up to 100 years old.   The Galápagos tortoises on Española are usually smaller in size than other tortoises species found in Galapagos, and have a unique shell pattern. After mating, the female migrates from the island each year to have their eggs laid on sandy beaches elsewhere, which contributes to their unique characteristics.

Northern Isabela

The Galápagos giant tortoises that inhabit North Isabela are known for having a slightly different shell shape compared to other Galapagos species, specifically rounded shells. These rounded shells are often characterized by the presence of a ridge or hump on the upper carapace. This feature helps these Galapagos giant tortoises to protect their heads from the sun and other harsh conditions found in Isabela. In addition, these Galápagos giant tortoises also have longer necks and legs than those found on Santa Cruz Island.   This allows them to reach into higher branches for food and move around more efficiently as they look for shelter.

It is estimated that there are 900-1000 Galápagos giant tortoises living in this environment, making it the second-largest population of Galápagos tortoise species.   They are also known to live longer than other Galapagos tortoise species due to their unique shell shape and ability to protect themselves from the elements.   These Galapagos giant tortoises are truly an amazing sight to behold in their natural habitat.  Therefore, if you ever get the chance to visit North Isabela and witness these Galapagos giant tortoises in person, it is absolutely worth it!

Wolf Volcano

The Galápagos Islands are home to the Wolf Volcano, which was formed during the last ice age and is now the oldest volcano in the archipelago, also known as Wolf island. The Volcan wolf tortoises can be seen here, living among its lava flows and ash fields. Conservation programs for this species are important due to their vulnerable status. Breeding programs have been set up in zoos to help reintroduce these animals back into the wild. For example the san diego zoo and Charles Darwin research station are working together to help increase the population and diversity of these tortoises. In recent years, more efforts have been made to protect their habitat in the wild by establishing protected areas on Galapagos islands, such as Pinta Island.

Pinta Island Tortoise

The Pinta Island Tortoise is a unique subspecies of Galapagos giant tortoises. It was thought to be extinct until it was rediscovered in 1971 on Wolf Volcano, located on Isabela Islands. These tortoises are distinctive due to their yellowish-brown shells and elongated necks and legs. They are quite large, usually weighing between 250 and 300 pounds.

The Female migrates annually to lay their eggs on sandy beaches elsewhere, contributing to the unique characteristics of this species.   To help ensure its survival, conservation programs have been taken to protect their habitat in the Galapagos archipelago. In recent years, a protected area has been established on Pinta Island in an effort to help the population grow and diversify. Breeding programs have also been set up in zoos to reintroduce the pinta tortoise back into the wild and help increase their population.

Fernandina Island Tortoise

The Fernandina Island tortoise is a critically endangered species that can only be found in Galapagos. This species has two subspecies, Geochelone phantastica and Geochelone vicina, both of which are native to Galapagos humid islands. G. phantastica is the largest subspecies and has a saddle backed carapace, while G. vicina is smaller and has a dome-shaped carapace.

Due to hunting and destruction of their habitat, these tortoises are nearly extinct with only about 150 individuals known to be alive in the wild. The Galapagos Conservancy works hard to protect this species, by reintroducing them into the wild, providing safe habitats for them, and monitoring their numbers. To help preserve its genetic diversity and prevent inbreeding Galápagos tortoises have been taken to zoos around the world to breed with other Galapagos species.

Conservation programs are ongoing as Galápagos National Park Service works to protect their habitat and increase their population. With these efforts, there is hope that the Galapagos tortoise can become a thriving species once again.

The Galapagos Tortoise and its habitat

Giant Galapagos Tortoise - Santa Cruz Island in the Galapagos Islands

Giant Galapagos Tortoise – Santa Cruz Island in the Galapagos Islands

Galápagos giant tortoises live in dry, arid places where they eat mostly cacti, grasses, and fruits. They also get their water from the dew that forms in the early morning hours. These reptiles spend most of their time in burrows to escape the heat during the day or hibernate during cold nights.

To stay cool during the day, these reptiles often hide in burrows or mud wallows. Galápagos tortoise populations have an amazing ability to adapt and survive in their environment. They are also strong swimmers, able to dive more than 5 meters in search of food or shelter from predators.

The Galápagos giant tortoise populations’ habitat range from the hot and dry coastal regions to cooler, highland areas in various parts of the islands. Galápagos tortoises can habitat in many different kinds of places, like forests, grasslands, savannahs, and even rocky areas. They also live on cliffsides, lagoons, and the Galapagos sea, depending on the species. Galápagos tortoises are most active in areas with plenty of vegetation and water, as these provide them with both food and shelter.

The Galapagos Tortoise Adaptations

The Galapagos giant tortoise has many adaptations that make it such a special creature. For instance, they are able to store water in their bodies and can go up to a year without food or water. They also have a tough, thick shell that protects them from predators. Additionally, because they are so heavy, they can use their weight to prevent flooding or strong winds from carrying them away.

The Galapagos Tortoise Migration & Struggles

The Galápagos tortoises’ migration is greatly hindered by various factors such as barriers, farmlands farm animals, fencing and roads; all of which can have a detrimental effect on the health of these creatures. Additionally, they are often in close proximity to farm animals which can lead to further health issues. These obstructions, combined with the destruction of their natural habitat, has caused a marked decline in Galápagos tortoise populations.

The Galapagos Tortoise Social Behavior

Galápagos Giant Tortoise, Galápagos National Park, Ecuador

Galápagos Giant Tortoise taking a mud bath, Galápagos National Park, Ecuador

Galápagos tortoises usually live alone, but when there is a lot of food during the wet season, small groups may form to look for food. They are not particularly territorial, but they do defend their food sources and will fight if necessary.   These creatures typically interact with others of the same species, including the domed tortoises and other Galapagos large tortoises species.  The Galapagos giant tortoise is a very social animal, engaging in activities such as grazing, taking mud baths, and resting together in groups. They are also known to form lifelong friendships with certain individuals, indicating that Galápagos tortoises may have social bonds.   Additionally, the adult tortoise of different species, such as the domed tortoise and Pinta varieties, will sometimes mix together in the wild.

Reproduction & Newly Hatched Tortoises Threats

Baby Galapagos Tortoise

Baby Galapagos Tortoise

The mating season for Galápagos tortoises is typical during the wet season when there is ample food available to help them give birth. During this time, males compete for access to females and can be quite aggressive with one another. The Galapagos tortoise is a relatively quiet creature, except during mating, when they make hoarse grunts; aggressive encounters, when they emit harsh sounds; and when the tortoise withdraws into its shell, producing a hissing noise from the expulsion of air.   This endangered species can also be threatened by newly hatched tortoises, which have to compete for food from larger animals.

Females lay between two and sixteen eggs at a time before burying them right below the surface in order to keep them safe from predators. The Galapagos Tortoise’s sex is largely determined by the temperature of the nest it was born in – warmer nests typically yield more females, while cooler nests will produce more males.

Female tortoises lay between two and sixteen eggs at a time before burying them just below the surface to protect them from predators. Once they hatch, it takes around 5 years for the young Galápagos tortoises to reach maturity and gain all of the unique characteristics that make up this species. Despite their adaptations, newly hatched tortoises remain vulnerable to Galapagos hawks, owls and other predators. To protect themselves from these animals, the young tortoises will often burrow into the sandy ground or hide among vegetation. In addition, the tortoise’s body hard shell can deflect some of the attacks from predators.

The Galapagos Tortoise Lifespan

The Galapagos giant tortoises have one of the longest life expectancy of any animal on Earth, with some adult tortoises living over 100 years. Uniquely, each Galapagos island is home to a genetically distinct species of Galapagos tortoise; the most recognizable being the iconic saddleback tortoise. These fascinating creatures have adapted to their environment so well that they are able to survive in different islands. This is an incredible feat, considering their slow speed and the immense distances between the Galapagos.

Appearance, Nutrition, and Conduct

Many giant tortoises eat vegetables. Mauritius, La vanille

Many giant tortoises eat vegetables. Mauritius, La vanille

Galápagos tortoises are renowned for their large, dome-shaped shell, thick legs, and bright colors. They feed on vegetation such as cacti, fruits, grasses, and other plants found on arid islands. Galápagos tortoises do not typically form social groups, but they will compete with one another for food sources during the wet season. Males can be quite aggressive towards each other when vying for access to mates.

The young Galápagos tortoises also have a particular tendency to feed on Galapagos Opuntia cactus pads, which are very nutritious and help them grow quickly. Galapagos giant tortoises also eat leaves, flowers, and fruits when they can find them. Galapagos giant tortoises only drink occasionally; they get the majority of their water from the vegetation they consume.

Galapagos giant tortoises also need to supplement their diet with calcium and other minerals, which they get from the Galapagos archipelagos’ rocky terrain. This variety of food sources helps them stay healthy and live a long life. It’s no wonder why Galapagos giant tortoises can reach over 100 years of age!

The Galapagos Tortoise Dangers and Predators

The Galápagos tortoise is vulnerable to many different predators, including cats, dogs, and birds. They are also threatened by humans hunting them for their meat or shells. Unfortunately, the population of Galápagos tortoises has been decreasing due to these threats. As a result, conservation work has been put in place at the breeding center on the Galapagos Islands.

Galapagos National Park

Air view of Baltra Airport

Air view of Baltra Airport

The Galápagos National Park was established in 1959 by the Ecuadorian government and spans over 4,000 square miles of land. It is the largest protected area in Ecuador and has been around ever since giant tortoises first arrived on the islands from mainland South America 2 to 3 million years ago. The park is a popular tourist destination and helps protect this unique ecosystem from people who might do things to harm it.

Due to its remote location, Galapagos National Park has become an important refuge for native species, including Galapagos giant tortoises. At least two species of Galapagos giant tortoise are thought to have gone extinct due to hunters and invasive species.

The Galapagos National Park serves as an important habitat for preserving these ancient creatures and helps protect them from human interference. Visitors to Galapagos National Park can get a closer look at these amazing animals in their natural habitat and learn about the many conservation programs that have been put in place to protect them.

Galapagos Conservancy

The Galapagos Conservancy is dedicated to the protection and restoration of the Galápagos Islands’ unique ecosystems, which are home to a variety of unique species, including adult tortoises, the pinta tortoise, and young tortoises. The Galapagos Conservancy works with local partners, global partners, and scientists to come up with projects that will protect Galapagos species.

Some of these projects include breeding programs, restoring habitats, doing research, teaching people about conservation, and raising public awareness. In addition to protecting giant tortoises and other species, the Galapagos Conservancy also works to protect the fragile ecosystems of the Galapagos by helping preserve its natural resources and encouraging sustainable practices such as ecotourism. Other conservation efforts are focusing on maintaining a healthy number of each species. Check out our article, where we dive into the details about the Galapagos tortoises’ population!

This includes making sure that Galapagos’ unique species, like the Galápagos tortoise, are protected from threats like hunting, overfishing, and illegal trade. Galapagos Conservancy also tries to teach people about the unique biodiversity of Galapagos and encourages responsible tourism to protect Galapagos for future generations.

The Charles Darwin Research Station

GALAPAGOS, ECUADOR - MARCH 16: TRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall meet giant tortoises during a tour of the Darwin Research Station on Santa Cruz Island on March 16, 2009 in Galapagos, Ecuador. The Prince and the Duchess are in The Galapagos as part of a ten-day tour of South America taking in Chile, Brazil, Ecuador and the Galapagos

GALAPAGOS, ECUADOR – MARCH 16: TRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall meet giant tortoises during a tour of the Darwin Research Station on Santa Cruz Island on March 16, 2009 in Galapagos, Ecuador. The Prince and the Duchess are in The Galapagos as part of a ten-day tour of South America taking in Chile, Brazil, Ecuador and the Galapagos.

The Charles Darwin Research Station in Galapagos is a breeding center and conservation education facility located on the Galapagos island of Santa Cruz. Established by the Ecuadorian government in 1964, it was created to protect the Galápagos tortoises from extinction. The center works to conserve this species through captive rearing, reintroduction efforts, and conservation research. Galapagos National Park, within Galapagos territory, provides the Galapagos tortoises even more protection. The park was established in 1959 by the Ecuadorian government and covers over 4,000 square miles of land.

The park’s mission is to protect this unique ecosystem from people who might do things to harm it. At the Research Station, adult Galapagos tortoises are kept in captivity for research and breeding purposes, hence the station is also known as a breeding center. This helps researchers learn more about Galapagos giant tortoise behavior and reproduction while also providing a safe environment in which the animals can live and reproduce. The goal of these efforts is to help protect Galapagos tortoise populations from the threats of poaching, habitat loss, and climate change.

Breeding Giant Tortoise Eggs

In captivity, the Charles Darwin Research Station breeds Galapagos tortoise eggs in captivity until they are ready to be released into the wild. Also known as a breeding center. This giant tortoise center is an important step in the conservation of this species, as it helps to preserve genetic diversity and increase their numbers. It also provides researchers with a better understanding of the Galapagos giant tortoise’s behavior and ecology.

By studying these animals in captivity, researchers can learn more about how they interact with other species and what threats they face in the wild.   By hatching these tortoise eggs in captivity, the research station makes sure that the giant tortoise population is healthy and that people in the future will be able to enjoy the Galapagos tortoise’s joys and wonders.

Lonesome George

Fausto Llerena and Lonesome George at the Breeding Center where he remained for 40 years. Photo by: Tui de Roy.

Lonesome George at the Breeding Center. Photo by: Tui de Roy. Source:

The Galapagos tortoise is an animal with a fascinating history, and no story is more beloved than that of the giant tortoise Lonesome George. As the last known individual of his species, George was brought to the Charles Darwin Research Station in 1972, where he lived out his life in captivity. Through careful research efforts, scientists were able to discover some of the unique adaptations that allowed the giant tortoise Lonesome George to survive for so long on such a remote island. By studying him and other Galapagos tortoises, they learned valuable information about conservation and ecology.

The Most Popular World Tortoise – FAQ

Here are some frequently asked questions for the most famous endemic tortoise; that you might be wondering about.

What are Galápagos tortoise’s?

Portrait of a tortoise with the focus on the face

Baby Galapagos Tortoise

The Galapagos giant tortoise is a species that is unique to the Galapagos Islands and is considered to be one of the most iconic animals in the world. A species that first appeared on the planet approximately 15 million years ago. These creatures are well-known for their exceptionally long lifespans, distinctive physical traits, and specialized adaptations that help them survive in the particular environment in which they are found. This tortoise has outlived many other species and is one of the oldest existing species on Earth. It might be regarded a living dinosaur due to the fact that it is the oldest living species on the planet.

How many Galapagos tortoises remain?

The wild population of Galapagos tortoises is estimated to number no more than a few hundred thousand individuals at most. This is due to the fact that they face danger from both people and other animals. The Galapagos Islands have benefited from the conservation efforts that have been made there, which have helped to safeguard them from poaching and other threats. However, if we want to make sure that these one-of-a-kind animals will still be around in the future, we will need to continue our efforts.

Why are Galapagos tortoises so big?

The Galapagos giant tortoise is the heaviest extant species, with individual specimens capable of reaching up to 230 kilograms in weight. This extraordinary size gives them an advantage in the natural environment they inhabit since it enables them to access higher food sources, such as cactus and branches, that are generally out of reach for other species. In addition to this, their substantial size serves as a defense mechanism against potential enemies, since the thick shell mixed with their weight makes it tough to break through. Last but not least, because of their enormous size, they are able to retain water within their bodies, allowing them to survive for up to a year without drinking any.

The giant tortoise of the Galapagos Islands has been able to adapt to all of these changes and continue to thrive on the islands for thousands of years. The population of Galapagos tortoises is in jeopardy despite the fact that there are attempts being made to conserve them. The main threats to their population are hunting and the degradation of their natural environment. There are only about 20,000–25,000 of these species thought to be alive today in their natural habitat, according to estimates.

How do Galapagos Tortoises demonstrate Darwin’s Theory of Evolution?

The Galapagos tortoises are one of the best examples of Darwin’s theory of evolution. For years, the islands of the Galapagos have contained different species of these giant reptiles that are specially adapted to each island’s unique environment. Over time, their adaptations have become more and more specialized until they become a unique species, showing just how powerful the process of natural selection can be.

Did the last Galápagos tortoise die?

It is not true that the Galapagos giant tortoise population has been extinguished. Although several species of Galapagos tortoises are in risk of extinction at the present time, there are still some living in the wild, and their population has been gradually growing as a result of conservation efforts. The Galapagos giant turtle that is known to be the oldest living individual is almost 120 years old! This indicates that these magnificent species may yet have a chance to flourish, provided that we continue to make the appropriate conservation measures in the years to come.

These incredible creatures need our help to be preserved for the enjoyment of future generations, and we each have a part to play in that effort. Let’s make sure they receive their happily ever after by lending a helping hand. The Galápagos giant tortoise is without a doubt one of the most incredible animals that can be found anywhere in the globe. These tortoises provide for an incredibly interesting case study in the field of wildlife conservation due to their one-of-a-kind adaptations, extremely long lifespans, and enormous sizes.

What is the oldest known living Galapagos giant tortoise’s age?

It’s hard to believe, but the Galapagos giant turtle that holds the record for oldest living individual is 120 years old. If they are provided with the correct level of protection and care, this demonstrates that these animals are capable of living a very long life. The magnificent Galapagos giant tortoise might potentially live to be up to 150 years old, according to the research conducted by scientists; therefore, it still has a great deal of time left in its life.

This Chelonoidis abingdonii giant tortoise, which is 120 years old and is affectionately known as “Lonesome George,” is a member of a species known as Chelonoidis abingdonii. George is a celebrity in the Galapagos Islands and the motivation behind all of the conservation initiatives. The fact that he was the very last member of his species and had been found on Pinta Island in 1971 brought widespread attention to his name.


The tortoise that is native to the Galapagos Islands is an amazing creature with a remarkable backstory. In order for them to exist for hundreds of years, they have had to triumph over a number of challenges, such as whalers and pirates when they were just getting started, as well as predators on nearby islands. In spite of the challenges they face, the hardy giant tortoises of the Galapagos Islands are doing well in today’s world thanks to conservation programs led by organizations such as the Galapagos National Park, Galapagos Conservancy, and The Charles Research Station.

We can secure the lifespan of the giant tortoise population if we keep on breeding giant tortoise eggs and shielding them from dangers both natural and anthropogenic in origin. The Galapagos tortoise is definitely one of the great marvels of the world because of its remarkable ability to adapt to its environment, its long lifespan, and its distinctive appearance as well as behavior. Make sure to visit our Galapagos Tortoise page to view all Galapagos cruise departures that include visit points where you will encounter Galapagos tortoises.

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About Angel Nunez

Ecuador & Galapagos Travel Consultant, Blogger, Fitness & Health Aficionado, Amateur Photographer & Designer. Here to guide you through stories and visuals, what Ecuador, The Galapagos Islands & Peru have in store for you!

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